This last year may have been one that most of us will remember as being dominated by feelings of uncertainty, social distancing and lockdowns, but there was no shortage of fascinating scientific discoveries. Here’s the proof…
- Science quiz of the year: 20 questions to test whether you were paying attention in 2021
Human cells implanted into monkey embryos
A bold and controversial study, published in the journal Cell in April, reported how researchers at the Salk Institute in San Diego had inserted human stem cells into the embryos of monkeys. The embryos survived in the lab, outside of an animal, for up to 20 days – longer than in any similar experiment. The researchers also noticed communication pathways form, which may explain how human cells could better integrate with non-human cells in future experiments.
Work on this kind of hybrid organism, known as a chimera, is conducted for two main reasons. First, it could allow researchers to create ‘model’ human cells to study disease and new drugs, without breaching the ethical codes that prevent the same work being carried out on actual humans. Second, it could enable the growth of new organs for human transplant.
Researchers have tried the same thing with other animals, such as sheep and pigs, in the past, but the chimeras didn’t survive for long. Pairing the human cells with a non-human primate is both the reason it worked better (because we’re closer in evolutionary terms) and the reason the work is controversial.
“The closer your model gets to being human, well, the closer your model gets to being human,” said Prof Henry Greely, director for the Center of Law and Biosciences at Stanford University. He co-authored a response to the Salk study, laying out some of the ethical questions this kind of work raises.
“Xenotransplantation is one of the long-term goals here: to make human organs in another animal and use them for human transplants,” he said.
“That’s a big deal if you can pull it off. But on a journey of 500 miles, this is a step of one metre. The ethics side is exciting, but depends largely on what happens next.”
Greely believes that as long as you’re growing the embryos in a dish, it’s not a big deal, as far as ethics are concerned. But what if the work advances, and goes from being an embryo in a dish, to one growing in a womb, with a significant number of human cells, which continue to survive?
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“That becomes a really interesting question. One is animal welfare: do you let these things be born? What are they? I don’t think they’re humans, but it’s hard to know.
"Let’s say one of them is born and has an enlarged skull and a big brain that looks pretty human. What do we do with that? I think a good starting point for society to come to is [to say]: ‘Yeah, we may want to play around with these, but we don’t want to implant them.’”
While this kind of biotechnology remains some way off, the field is developing rapidly and Greely says that existing bioethical and legal frameworks are struggling to keep pace. He’d like to see more ‘horizon-scanning’ groups, whose job it is to look at the direction of travel for a particular kind of research and ensure society is having the required ethical conversations in good time.
Solar telescope captures most detailed view of a sunspot ever
Staring at the Sun is never a good idea, but we’ll excuse astronomers using the Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope in Hawaii. This year they released the most detailed view of a sunspot ever captured.
The innovative telescope captures higher resolution solar imagery than ever before and uses a technology called adaptive optics to correct some of the distortions, caused by Earth’s atmosphere, that would normally fudge the image. The result: a frightening-but-fascinating look at our star’s behaviour, which could eventually help us predict GPS-bothering solar flares. Looks a bit like the Eye of Sauron, no?
Pythagoras' Theorem was in use 1,000 years before his birth
Like 1066 and oxbow lakes, Pythagoras’ Theorem was one of the things we all picked up at school. But it seems that Pythagoras wasn’t the first person to suss it out.
(A quick refresh: the sides of a right-angled triangle follow the equation a2 + b2 = c2. So if you add the squared lengths of the sides that form the right angle, you’ll get the squared length of the hypotenuse.)
August saw Australian mathematician Dr Daniel Mansfield publish his analysis of a 3,700-year-old tablet found in Iraq. It showed that Babylonians were using the same rule to mark and divide up land over 1,000 years before Pythagoras was born.
Is it high time for psychedelic therapies?
After years of mainstream resistance, the world is, in more ways than one, beginning to change its mind on psychedelic drugs. The therapeutic benefits of magic mushrooms, LSD and other hallucinogens are increasingly supported by hard-to-ignore evidence, as the substances become the subject of a major research focus. In 2021, we may even have reached a tipping point of acceptability, not least because of the stark results from one study at the Centre for Psychedelic Research at Imperial College London.
It found that psilocybin, a substance derived from magic mushrooms, was at least as effective in treating depression as escitalopram. All the patients also received psychological support during the trial. This was a randomised, controlled, double-blind study, and the head-to-head design suggests that psilocybin offers better outcomes for patients than escitalopram, which is one of the most commonly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
“On almost all measures, psilocybin worked significantly better and faster than escitalopram and was at least as well tolerated,” said Prof David Nutt, one of the study’s authors. The measures include self-reported symptoms, chance of remission and adverse side effects.
Psilocybin remains a class A drug in the UK and possession is punishable by up to seven years in prison. Elsewhere, however, its legal status is being reassessed. “In the US, many places are removing the illegal status of magic mushrooms in part to accelerate research and treatment,” Nutt says. “The UK is lagging behind despite our being leaders in the field.”
Perhaps spurred on by the success of medical cannabis (economic as well as therapeutic), there’s a growing sense of normalisation about the substances and their therapeutic potential. Multiple studies on a wide spectrum of conditions are either planned or underway all over the world.
“We have started our trial of psilocybin in anorexia nervosa and will start one on obsessive compulsive disorder and pain in the new year,” Nutt said.
He and his colleagues are also researching other psychedelics, such as LSD and DMT, while another strand of investigation focuses on the therapeutic practicalities of using these drugs.
Earlier this year, researchers at University of California, Davis, reported work on a psychedelic compound that may not have hallucinogenic side effects. This could be important as those kinds of side effects require that patients receive a lot of hands-on psychological support before and after treatment.
Meanwhile, a team at the University of Copenhagen found that psilocybin enhances our emotional response to music – something they say should be considered if the drug is approved for clinical use.
CRISPR gene editing injected directly into bloodstream
Gene editing is a branch of science developing at paradigm-shifting speeds and this year, the milestones in human health kept coming. In June, researchers announced extraordinary results from an extraordinary new technique, where the CRISPR Cas-9 gene editor was – for the first time – injected directly into the bloodstream of a patient with a rare inherited disease.
Normally, CRISPR works by extracting cells from a patient, editing them in a lab and returning them to the body. It’s costly, time-consuming and hard on patients who sometimes undergo chemotherapy as part of the process.
The CRISPR technique was relatively quick, and successful too: the treatment saw a huge decline in destructive proteins that build up in the body’s organs and tissues in the previously untreatable condition transthyretin amyloidosis.
Cats love to sit in imaginary boxes
If I fits, I sits. Cat lovers everywhere know how much felines enjoy sitting in a box. The behaviour, observed in big cats as well as domestic moggies, is believed to make them feel safe and concealed – handy, because they evolved as ambush hunters.
Now a citizen science project led by researchers at Columbia University in New York has found just how deep-rooted the behaviour is. The project found that cats will even sit in imaginary boxes. Cat owners created square shapes on the floors in their homes, using stickers or tape, and watched as their pets plonked themselves in the middle of them.
Humanoid robot learned to lip-sync
Watch out Cyberdyne Systems! This year roboticists at Edinburgh Napier University developed a humanoid robot that can lip-sync with speech. The robot, which one of the designers modelled on his dad, borrows technology first developed for 3D animated characters.
Using an algorithm that recognises patterns in speech, the robot interprets that data as jaw and lip movements, accurately mimicking the way a mouth moves to produce speech. Despite the warnings of James Cameron’s back catalogue, researchers say this kind of robot will help people interact with technology in new ways.
- Podcast: Why realistic humanoid robots need to learn to lip-sync
A blindness treatment is in sight
Hope continues to grow that we will soon be able to treat and reverse blindness, with a number of promising avenues of research showing progress. This year, researchers successfully transplanted human retinal cells into the eyes of monkeys. The researchers that carried out the procedure found no signs of unwanted side effects, such as light sensitivity or dangerous immune responses.
Grown from human stem cells donated to science, the cells began to take over control of some functions of the monkeys’ eyes. Human trials may not be far away, but researchers at Icahn School of Medicine in New York say that first the technique needs to be tested on monkeys with impaired vision.
Artificial titanium hearts could save lives
Researchers have been trying to build an artificial heart for more than 50 years. Now, an Australian team is planning human trials for a design that could have huge implications for our health.
BiVACOR is revolutionary because it doesn’t attempt to work exactly like a real heart – it tries to one-up evolution instead with an efficient and sustainable way to pump blood around the body. It utilises spinning disc technology, which sees a circular pump suspended between magnets in an artificial heart made of titanium.
So far, the technology has only been tested in animals and temporarily in heart transplant patients, although a full human trial is on the horizon. If it works, it could be massive – a quarter of all UK deaths result from heart disease.
Pigs taught to play video games
It sounds like total trotters, but pigs are smart enough to play video games. In a study at Purdue University, four pigs moved a joystick with their snouts to direct a cursor to on-screen targets.
Researchers noted that their performances were well above those that could be explained by chance, and that the pigs responded to food rewards and verbal encouragement. It’s the latest work to hint at the breadth of porcine intelligence, with past research highlighting their learning, memory and problem-solving abilities. Don’t you hate it when another player hogs the joystick, though?
As the research base grows, it might not be a case of if, but when we find ET
Somewhere out in the depths of the cosmos, life could be thriving on a strange kind of planet. Around 2.6 times the size of Earth, this alien world would be hot and covered in ocean, with an atmosphere that’s rich with hydrogen. Humans couldn’t survive there, but maybe we could detect the creatures that do. It’s even possible we could make that detection – and confirm that we’re not alone in the Universe – in the next two or three years.
This radical idea comes from researchers at the University of Cambridge, who published a paper in August speculating on the existence of such a world. Researchers have dubbed the category a world like this would belong to as Hycean planets.
If the existence of Hycean planets is confirmed, it could turbocharge the search for extraterrestrial life because detecting biosignatures from such worlds is potentially a lot easier than doing the same for Earth-like planets. Plus, a lot of already known exoplanets could fall into this class.
“The fundamental advancement here is that this idea will expand and accelerate the search for life elsewhere,” said study author Dr Nikku Madhusudhan. “In a very practical sense, it literally increases our chances.”
Traditionally, astronomers have scanned the skies for hints of oxygen, methane and other biomarkers produced in large quantities by microorganisms here on Earth.
“On Hycean worlds, we’ll be looking for molecules such as methyl chloride and dimethyl sulphide,” said Madhusudhan. These are also produced by life, but in much smaller quantities – something that’s not a problem when it occurs on Hycean worlds.
“The observability of these [planets’] atmospheres would be so good that even if these molecules are present at one part per million, they’ll still be observable,” he said.
Madhusudhan hopes to take advantage of the James Webb Space Telescope, the largest space telescope ever built. He believes that all it would take is a few hours trained on a Hycean planet for the telescope to pick up biosignatures using transit spectroscopy (a technique in which researchers measure the changes in starlight as it filters through the atmosphere of a planet that’s passing in front of it).
As significant as such a discovery would be, it would also beg further questions. “One fundamental question would be: is life possible in such environments? And how would life originate on this planet? You need to do a lot more follow-up observations to robustly establish whether [what you’re seeing] is indeed a signature of life,” said Madhusudhan.
“I may be risking making a big statement here, but this could be our entry point to extraterrestrial biology. But if you’re quoting me on that, please make it clear I’m saying it with some caution!”
Could Neanderthals talk like us?
Big talk from palaeontologists this year, who claimed that Neanderthals had the capacity to hear – and possibly speak – just like us high-minded Homo sapiens.
Once dismissed as uncultured knuckle-dragging cave-dwellers, perspective on our evolutionary cousins has been shifting in recent years. They may have worn ornamental dress, for example. We certainly share DNA with them, and now researchers believe there’s a good chance they were capable of sophisticated verbal communication.
The conclusion comes from researchers in Madrid, who created 3D models of the ear structures of Neanderthals, allowing them to model the frequencies at which they could hear. Neanderthal hearing was attuned to frequencies around 4-5kHz, which happens to match the majority of human speech sounds. Researchers believe if they could hear it, there’s a good chance they could speak it.
What have we found at Mars this year?
2021 has been a busy year for the Red Planet. Three missions arrived in February, having set out seven months before to take advantage of the alignment of Earth and Mars’s orbit, an event that only happens once every 26 months.
The first mission to arrive on 9 February was the United Arab Emirates’ Hope orbiter, the nation’s first planetary mission. The spacecraft’s goal is to study the past and present climate of Mars from orbit. Unlike previous missions from other space agencies, which would only look at specific locations at the same time, Hope will look at changes throughout the day. Over time it will monitor Mars’s daily, monthly and yearly changes to build up a comprehensive image of what the weather is like on the Red Planet.
The next arrival – Tianwen-1, belonging to the Chinese National Space Agency (CNSA) – reached Mars a day later, on 10 February. The spacecraft spent its first few months at Mars surveying the surface from orbit, reconnoitring for the next stage of the mission: setting down the Zhurong rover. The CNSA eventually selected a site in the large Utopia Planitia and successfully touched down on 22 May.
The main goal of the mission was a test of China’s ability to operate on the surface of Mars, paving the way for future missions, however, both orbiter and rover are equipped with cameras, radar and spectrometers that will continue to survey the planet’s surface and atmosphere.
But, back on 18 February – before the Tianwen-1 mission had located a landing site for the Zhurong rover – the last, and largest, of the three missions arrived at Mars, in the form of NASA’s Perseverance lander. It touched down in the Jezero Crater, near what appears to be the site of a past river delta, making it a great place to study the history of water on the Red Planet and its potential past habitability.
Perseverance is closely based on the design of its predecessor, Curiosity, but has one major addition – a suite of instruments dedicated to drilling and storing rock samples from the Martian surface. But although Perseverance is a highly equipped robo-geologist, there’s only so much you can pack onto a rover and send to Mars.
To truly understand the planet (particularly if we want to find evidence of any past life) scientists need to be able to study a Martian sample in the best labs here on Earth. Perseverance represents the first step in that process. It will spend the next few years travelling across Jezero Crater, collecting up to 43 rock samples that it will then leave in caches for a future Sample Return mission (currently being planned by NASA, in collaboration with the European and Japanese space agencies) to collect and return to Earth.
Perseverance attempted to collect its first sample on 5 August, only to discover the next day that the sample vessel was empty, as the rock appears to have crumbled as Perseverance pulled it out of the ground. The rover moved to a more solid-looking rock, nicknamed Rochette, and successfully stored its first sample on 7 September.
At the time of writing the rover had travelled over 2.6km – quite a fast pace for a Martian rover. Its progress has been aided in large part by a spacecraft that hitched a ride to Mars with Perseverance: the Ingenuity Helicopter. The small drone-like rotocraft is a technology demonstration mission, intended to see if it’s possible to fly through the thin Martian atmosphere, the answer to which is a comprehensive ‘yes’. Since its first 39-second test flight on 19 April, Ingenuity has flown over a dozen times, travelling more than 2km.
More elaborate missions using the same technology are being planned, but as Ingenuity is only equipped with a camera, it’s being used to scout ahead of Perseverance, highlighting any potential hazards or objects of interest.
So what have we learned at Mars this year? The UAE learned how to orbit, China learned how to land, and NASA learned how to fly.
- This article first appeared in issue 371 of BBC Science Focus Magazine – find out how to subscribe here
- 1- Fleischmann–Pons's Nuclear Fusion. ...
- 2- Phrenology. ...
- 3- The Blank Slate. ...
- 4- Luminiferous Aether. ...
- 5- Einstein's Static (or Stationary) Universe. ...
- 6- Martian Canals. ...
- 7- Phlogiston Theory. ...
- 8- The Expanding or Growing Earth.
Without the discovery of DNA, we wouldn't have all the ground-breaking studies going on right now in genome mapping and sequencing, so for that reason, DNA has to be my number one scientific discovery of all time.What are some current scientific issues? ›
- Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning.
- Biological Technology.
- Digital Landscape.
- Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion.
- Engineering and Infrastructure.
- Creation of technologies that replace a man. ...
- Environmental Deterioration. ...
- Technology Addiction. ...
- Disadvantage in the future: Man against Machine.
- Light bulbs. Pixabay. ...
- Coffee. Fae/Wikimedia Commons. ...
- Airplanes and fighter jets. NASA Langley Research Center. ...
- Umbrellas. James Gillray/Public Domain. ...
- Personal computers. Getty Images Europe. ...
- Taxis. Dan McCoy/Public Domain. ...
- Vaccines. Wikimedia Commons.
Albert Einstein is one of the most famous scientists in the world. He used to be an eccentric person who was perhaps the only scientist in the world who has become such a household name. His theories of relativity, gravitation and his understanding of molecules have defined new approaches in science.What is the biggest discovery of 2022? ›
The Most Important Discovery Of 2022: The James Webb Space Telescope.What is the most interesting scientific fact? ›
Scientists believe that there are more than three billion base pairs of DNA in human genes and more than 25,000 genes in the human genome, according to an article in Nature. An entire copy of that genome exists in each of the 30 to 40 trillion cells in the human body.What discovery has changed the world? ›
Some important scientific and cultural discoveries that changed the world. Includes very basic discoveries such as fire, wheel and writing and also later scientific discoveries such as gravity, the theory of evolution and the theory relativity.Who is the most underrated scientist in history? ›
- Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958) ...
- Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910-1995) ...
- Ida Noddack (1896-1978) ...
- Lise Meitner (1878-1968) ...
- Charles Best (1899-1978), James Collip (1892-1965) and Nicolae Paulescu (1869-1931) ...
- Chien-Shiung Wu (1912-1997) ...
- Eunice Foote (1819-1888)
There were many such breakthroughs, but the two that stand out as the most significant are the invention of the telephone and the light bulb. Some of the most significant developments in science throughout history have occurred in the past 300 years, from the invention of the telephone to the discovery of the gene.What are the 5 biggest problems facing the world today? ›
- Biodiversity loss.
- Climate change.
- Destructive artificial intelligence.
- Environmental disaster.
- Nuclear holocaust.
- Pandemic. current example: COVID-19 pandemic.
- Biotechnology risk.
- Molecular nanotechnology.
- #1. Poverty. In fall 2022, the World Bank will update the International Poverty Line from $1.90 to $2.15. ...
- #2. Climate change. ...
- #3. Food insecurity. ...
- #4. Refugee rights. ...
- #5. COVID-19. ...
- #6. Future pandemic preparation and response. ...
- #7. Healthcare. ...
- #8. Mental health.
Climate change is one of the major challenges of our time. From shifting weather patterns that threaten food production, to rising sea levels that increase the risk of catastrophic flooding, the impacts of climate change are global in scope and unprecedented in scale.What is the hardest problem in science? ›
Despite a recent revival in interest in the topic (Christiansen & Kirby, 2003b;2003a;Fitch, 2010;Hurford, 2012), the evolutionary origins of language are still unclear, and has even been described as 'the hardest problem in science' (Christiansen & Kirby, 2003b). ...What is a negative result in science? ›
Answer: Negative results are results that do not support the hypothesis and nullify the aim of the research.Who failed 1000 times? ›
INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT THOMAS EDISON:
As an inventor, Edison made 1,000 unsuccessful attempts at inventing the light bulb. When a reporter asked, "How did it feel to fail 1,000 times?" Edison replied, "I didn't fail 1,000 times.
- The blade. ...
- The wheel. ...
- Sewage disposal. ...
- Clothes. ...
- Implantable Pacemaker. An implantable pacemaker is a battery-powered device that is placed under a person's skin that helps the heart perform normally. ...
- The Slinky. ...
- Post-it Notes. ...
- Play-Doh. ...
- Chocolate Chip Cookies. ...
- Velcro. ...
- Popsicle. ...
- Super Glue.
|Born||March 25, 1952 San Francisco, California, U.S.|
|Education||Reed College (dropped out) Montana State University–Bozeman (dropped out)|
|Known for||High IQ|
Many consider Aristotle to be the first scientist although the term “scientist” came two millennia after Aristotle. Aristotle was a Greek philosopher in the 4th century BC who was a pioneer of many techniques like logic, inquiry, observation, and demonstration.Which country has best scientists? ›
Scientists from the United States dominate the list with 490 scholars included in 2022 which represents 49% of the whole earth scientists ranking. Only 3 out of 10 scientists in the top 1% are from the United States.What is happening to the Earth 2022? ›
The present state of climate change
In March 2022, carbon dioxide levels reached 418 parts per million – the highest global concentration on record, the authors point out. This year is on course to be one of the hottest in recorded history, and ocean temperature has reached its highest on record.
November 3, 2022
This week's new planets include two TESS discoveries, TOI-969 b and TOI-3884 b, that are rare for their type: short-period planets between the sizes of sub-Neptunes and Saturn.
- Color Changing Cars : BMW IX Flow.
- Humanoid Robot : Ameca.
- Smart Bathing : PerfectFill.
- Foldable Tech Devices : Zenbook, Galaxy flip, etc.
- COVID-19 Breathalyzer Test : ViraWarn Freedom.
- Health Body Scans : Withings body scan.
- Digital Twins.
- A teaspoonful of neutron star. ...
- Metals that explode when in contact with water. ...
- Hawaii is moving closer to Alaska by 7.5cm every year. ...
- Sunflowers are known as hyperaccumulators. ...
- A cockroach can live for up to one week without its head.
- Glaciers and ice sheets hold about 69 percent of the world's freshwater. ...
- The fastest gust of wind ever recorded on Earth was 253 miles per hour. ...
- Recent droughts in Europe were the worst in 2,100 years. ...
- The best place in the world to see rainbows is in Hawaii.
- The oceans produce the majority of the oxygen on Earth. ...
- Soil is full of life. ...
- Bananas are radioactive. ...
- Water can exist in three states at the same time. ...
- Helium has the ability to work against gravity. ...
- Humans have inherited genes from other species. ...
- Human Body. ...
- Animals and Insects.
Formation. When the solar system settled into its current layout about 4.5 billion years ago, Earth formed when gravity pulled swirling gas and dust in to become the third planet from the Sun. Like its fellow terrestrial planets, Earth has a central core, a rocky mantle, and a solid crust.What was the last part of the world to be discovered? ›
The last continent to be discovered was Antarctica in the early 1800s.
When it comes to the topic of women in science, Marie Curie usually dominates the conversation. After all, she discovered two elements, was the first women to win a Nobel Prize, in 1903, and was the first person to win a second Nobel, in 1911.Who is the greatest scientist alive? ›
|Name||Field of Influence|
|1. Alain Aspect||Quantum Theory|
|2. David Baltimore||Virology—HIV & Cancer|
|3. Allen Bard||Electrochemistry|
|4. Timothy Berners- Lee||Computer Science (WWW)|
Laurent Simons was just 11 years old when he became the world's youngest science graduate, generating the instant label of Belgium's 'little Einstein'.What would we not have without science? ›
Without science there is no human growth, no technological advances, no knowledge generation and the world stagnates.What was a huge breakthrough in science during the 1950s? ›
The discovery in 1953 of the double helix, the twisted-ladder structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), by James Watson and Francis Crick marked a milestone in the history of science and gave rise to modern molecular biology, which is largely concerned with understanding how genes control the chemical processes within ...What scientific discovery saved the most lives? ›
The breakthroughs that are credited with saving the most lives? Toilets, synthetic fertilizers, blood transfusions, the green revolution (also known as the “Third Agricultural Revolution”), and vaccines are each credited with saving 1 billion lives.What is the biggest problem in the world 2022? ›
Inflation was the most worrying topic worldwide as of September 2022, with 40 percent of the respondents choosing that option. Poverty and social inequality ranked second, followed by three other topics at 26 percent.What is a world problem that needs to be solved? ›
End poverty. End hunger and improve nutrition and sustainable agriculture. Promote well being for all ages. Ensure equitable and quality education.What are the current issues in our society today 2022? ›
Some relevant global social problems include income inequality (poverty), corruption, the rise in authoritarianism (erosion of democratic values), criminality, unsustainable development, and bullying in schools.What are some real world issues? ›
- Climate Change.
- Health Care.
- Food Insecurity.
As additional scientific evidence is gathered, a scientific theory may be modified and ultimately rejected if it cannot be made to fit the new findings; in such circumstances, a more accurate theory is then required.What are 5 scientific limitations? ›
- Science doesn't make moral judgments.
- Science doesn't make aesthetic judgments.
- Science doesn't tell you how to use scientific knowledge.
- Science doesn't draw conclusions about supernatural explanations.
There are times when the data collected during the research is not enough to arrive at the result proposed in the paper. This can happen if the sample size is small or the control is not well-defined. If the obtained data doesn't support the hypothesis of a research paper, rejection is inevitable.Why are scientific papers rejected? ›
The reasons for a paper being rejected once it has been reviewed fall mainly into two categories: (1) problems with the research; and (2) problems with the writing/presentation of the paper. A paper may be rejected because of problems with the research on which it is based.Can scientific method fail? ›
Failure is an essential and inescapable part of scientific research. It's baked right into the scientific method: observe, measure, hypothesize, and then test. Of course, that hypothesis is often wrong. When it is, scientists go back, observe more, get new measurements, come up with a new hypothesis, and test again.Why evolution theory is not accepted? ›
When Darwin's work was first made public in 1859, it shocked Britain's religious establishment. And while today it is accepted by virtually all scientists, evolutionary theory still is rejected by many Americans, often because it conflicts with their religious beliefs about divine creation.Is evolution a theory? ›
Scientists talk about evolution as a theory, for instance, just as they talk about Einstein's explanation of gravity as a theory. A theory is an idea about how something in nature works that has gone through rigorous testing through observations and experiments designed to prove the idea right or wrong.Is there absolute truth in science? ›
There are no absolute truths in science; there are only approximate truths. Whether a statement, theory, or framework is true or not depends on quantitative factors and how closely you examine or measure the results.What are the 2 limitations of science? ›
Science does have limitations—it does not decide values or morals, nor tell a person how to live their life or what to believe. Science has its ethical concerns as well, such as the morality of using animal test subjects, or altering the course of human evolution.Can science determine right or wrong? ›
Science cannot tell us how to live. It cannot tell us right and wrong. If a system of thought claims to be doing those things, it cannot be science.
Some common synonyms of reject are decline, refuse, repudiate, and spurn. While all these words mean "to turn away by not accepting, receiving, or considering," reject implies a peremptory refusal by sending away or discarding.What does it mean to reject N? ›
to refuse to accept, acknowledge, use, believe, etc. to throw out as useless or worthless; discard. 3. to rebuff (a person)Is it illegal to share scientific papers? ›
In short: if you have an article your colleagues need for the research you are collaborating on, you can share it. You are allowed to share it privately, e.g. send it by e-mail, hand over a paper copy, or put it in a shared EndNote library.Who in the Bible dealt with rejection? ›
Jesus faced rejection from people who once claimed to love him. Christ, in his God-ness, predicted both Judas' betrayal and Peter's denial. He saw it coming.Can accepted paper be rejected? ›
While it is reasonable to reject a paper up front due to lack of space, backlog of similar papers, etc, it is not reasonable to do this once the paper has been accepted for publication.