Introductory microbiology laboratories are usually designated as which biosafety level (2022)

87) The biosafety level (BSL) for most introductory microbiology laboratories isA) BSL-1.B) BSL-2.C) BSL-3.D) BSL-4.

  • References:
  • Biological Agents, Work Practices, Safety Equipment, and Facility Design Specific to Each
  • References:
  • Biological Agents, Work Practices, Safety Equipment, and Facility Design Specific to Each
  • References:
  • Biological Agents, Work Practices, Safety Equipment, and Facility Design Specific to Each
  • References:
  • Biological Agents, Work Practices, Safety Equipment, and Facility Design Specific to Each
  • References:

Introductory microbiology laboratories are usually designated as which biosafety level (1)

A very specialized research laboratory that deals with infectious agents is the biosafety lab. Whether performing research or production activities, when working with infectious materials, organisms or perhaps even laboratory animals, the proper degree of protection is of utmost importance. Protection for laboratory personnel, the environment and the local community must be considered and ensured. The protections required by these types of activities are defined as biosafety levels. Biological safety levels are ranked from one to four and are selected based on the agents or organisms on which the research or work is being conducted. Each level up builds on the previous level, adding constraints and barriers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) are our main sources for biological safety information for infectious agents. The publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories is a principal reference and the resource for much of the information presented in this month’s column. As an introduction, we summarize what the different biosafety levels encompass in terms of the typical biological agents used, safe work practices, specialized safety equipment (primary barriers) and facility design (secondary barriers).

The four biosafety levels were developed to protect against a world of select agents. These agents include bacteria, fungi, parasites, prions, rickettsial agents and viruses, the latter being probably the largest and most important group. In many instances the work or research involves vertebrate animals, everything from mice to cattle. When vertebrates are involved, additional precautions and safety requirements are necessary. Using the most infectious agents also means extensive security measures are in place, not only because of their virulence but also because of their potential for use in bioterrorism.

Level 1

Biosafety level one, the lowest level, applies to work with agents that usually pose a minimal potential threat to laboratory workers and the environment and do not consistently cause disease in healthy adults. Research with these agents is generally performed on standard open laboratory benches without the use of special containment equipment. BSL 1 labs are not usually isolated from the general building. Training on the specific procedures is given to the lab personnel, who are supervised by a trained microbiologist or scientist.

Standard microbiology practices are usually enough to protect laboratory workers and other employees in the building. These include mechanical pipetting only (no mouth pipetting allowed), safe sharps handling, avoidance of splashes or aerosols, and decontamination of all work surfaces when work is complete, e.g., daily. Decontamination of spills is done immediately, and all potentially infectious materials are decontaminated prior to disposal, generally by autoclaving. Standard microbiological practices also require attention to personal hygiene, i.e., hand washing and a prohibition on eating, drinking or smoking in the lab. Normal laboratory personal protective equipment is generally worn, consisting of eye protection, gloves and a lab coat or gown. Biohazard signs are posted and access to the lab is limited whenever infectious agents are present.

Level 2

Biosafety level two would cover work with agents associated with human disease, in other words, pathogenic or infectious organisms posing a moderate hazard. Examples are the equine encephalitis viruses and HIV when performing routine diagnostic procedures or work with clinical specimens. Therefore, because of their potential to cause human disease, great care is used to prevent percutaneous injury (needlesticks, cuts and other breaches of the skin), ingestion and mucous membrane exposures in addition to the standard microbiological practices of BSL 1. Contaminated sharps are handled with extreme caution. Use of disposable syringe-needle units and appropriate puncture-resistant sharps containers is mandatory. Direct handling of broken glassware is prohibited, and decontamination of all sharps prior to disposal is standard practice. The laboratory’s written biosafety manual details any needed immunizations (e.g., hepatitis B vaccine or TB skin testing) and whether serum banking is required for at-risk lab personnel. Access to the lab is more controlled than for BSL 1 facilities. Immunocompromised, immunosuppressed, and other persons with increased risk for infection may be denied admittance at the discretion of the laboratory director.

BSL 2 labs must also provide the next level of barriers, i.e., specialty safety equipment and facilities. Preferably, this is a Class II biosafety cabinet or equivalent containment device for work with agents and an autoclave or other suitable method for decontamination within the lab. A readily available eyewash station is needed. Self-closing lockable doors and biohazard warning signs are also required at all access points.

Level 3

Yellow fever, St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus are examples of agents requiring biosafety level 3 practices and containment. Work with these agents is strictly controlled and must be registered with all appropriate government agencies. These are indigenous or exotic agents that may cause serious or lethal disease via aerosol transmission, i.e., simple inhalation of particles or droplets. The pathogenicity and communicability of these agents dictates the next level of protective procedures and barriers. Add to all the BSL 2 practices and equipment even more stringent access control and decontamination of all wastes, including lab clothing before laundering, within the lab facility. Baseline serum samples are collected from all lab and other at-risk personnel as appropriate.

More protective primary barriers are used in BSL 3 laboratories, including solid-front wraparound gowns, scrub suits or coveralls made of materials such as Tyvek® and respirators as necessary. Facility design should incorporate self-closing double-door access separated from general building corridors. The ventilation must provide ducted, directional airflow by drawing air into the lab from clean areas and with no recirculation.

(Video) Understanding Biosafety Levels

Level 4

Agents requiring BSL 4 facilities and practices are extremely dangerous and pose a high risk of life-threatening disease. Examples are the Ebola virus, the Lassa virus, and any agent with unknown risks of pathogenicity and transmission. These facilities provide the maximum protection and containment. To the BSL 3 practices, we add requirements for complete clothing change before entry, a shower on exit and decontamination of all materials prior to leaving the facility.

The BSL 4 laboratory should contain a Class III biological safety cabinet but may use a Class I or II BSC in combination with a positive-pressure, air-supplied full-body suit. Usually, BSL 4 laboratories are in separate buildings or a totally isolated zone with dedicated supply and exhaust ventilation. Exhaust streams are filtered through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, depending on the agents used.

We have touched on only the main issues and differences between BSL 1, 2, 3, and 4 laboratories. There are many other concerns and requirements addressed in the CDC manual, such as impervious, easy-to-clean surfaces; insect and rodent control; and total barrier sealing of all wall, floor, and ceiling penetrations. Our goal was to introduce you to the different levels of biological safety practices and facility design considerations. Hopefully, you now have the knowledge to decide whether you should open that door or not.

References:

  1. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th edition, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health, February 2007.https://www.cdc.gov/labs/BMBL.html
  2. Biennial Review of the Lists of Select Agents and Toxins, National Select Agent Registry, CDC. Atlanta, GA. 2010. http://www.selectagents.gov/

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Introductory microbiology laboratories are usually designated as which biosafety level (2)

Biological Agents, Work Practices, Safety Equipment, and Facility Design Specific to Each

A very specialized research laboratory that deals with infectious agents is the biosafety lab. Whether performing research or production activities, when working with infectious materials, organisms or perhaps even laboratory animals, the proper degree of protection is of utmost importance. Protection for laboratory personnel, the environment and the local community must be considered and ensured. The protections required by these types of activities are defined as biosafety levels. Biological safety levels are ranked from one to four and are selected based on the agents or organisms on which the research or work is being conducted. Each level up builds on the previous level, adding constraints and barriers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) are our main sources for biological safety information for infectious agents. The publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories is a principal reference and the resource for much of the information presented in this month’s column. As an introduction, we summarize what the different biosafety levels encompass in terms of the typical biological agents used, safe work practices, specialized safety equipment (primary barriers) and facility design (secondary barriers).

The four biosafety levels were developed to protect against a world of select agents. These agents include bacteria, fungi, parasites, prions, rickettsial agents and viruses, the latter being probably the largest and most important group. In many instances the work or research involves vertebrate animals, everything from mice to cattle. When vertebrates are involved, additional precautions and safety requirements are necessary. Using the most infectious agents also means extensive security measures are in place, not only because of their virulence but also because of their potential for use in bioterrorism.

Level 1

Biosafety level one, the lowest level, applies to work with agents that usually pose a minimal potential threat to laboratory workers and the environment and do not consistently cause disease in healthy adults. Research with these agents is generally performed on standard open laboratory benches without the use of special containment equipment. BSL 1 labs are not usually isolated from the general building. Training on the specific procedures is given to the lab personnel, who are supervised by a trained microbiologist or scientist.

Standard microbiology practices are usually enough to protect laboratory workers and other employees in the building. These include mechanical pipetting only (no mouth pipetting allowed), safe sharps handling, avoidance of splashes or aerosols, and decontamination of all work surfaces when work is complete, e.g., daily. Decontamination of spills is done immediately, and all potentially infectious materials are decontaminated prior to disposal, generally by autoclaving. Standard microbiological practices also require attention to personal hygiene, i.e., hand washing and a prohibition on eating, drinking or smoking in the lab. Normal laboratory personal protective equipment is generally worn, consisting of eye protection, gloves and a lab coat or gown. Biohazard signs are posted and access to the lab is limited whenever infectious agents are present.

Level 2

Biosafety level two would cover work with agents associated with human disease, in other words, pathogenic or infectious organisms posing a moderate hazard. Examples are the equine encephalitis viruses and HIV when performing routine diagnostic procedures or work with clinical specimens. Therefore, because of their potential to cause human disease, great care is used to prevent percutaneous injury (needlesticks, cuts and other breaches of the skin), ingestion and mucous membrane exposures in addition to the standard microbiological practices of BSL 1. Contaminated sharps are handled with extreme caution. Use of disposable syringe-needle units and appropriate puncture-resistant sharps containers is mandatory. Direct handling of broken glassware is prohibited, and decontamination of all sharps prior to disposal is standard practice. The laboratory’s written biosafety manual details any needed immunizations (e.g., hepatitis B vaccine or TB skin testing) and whether serum banking is required for at-risk lab personnel. Access to the lab is more controlled than for BSL 1 facilities. Immunocompromised, immunosuppressed, and other persons with increased risk for infection may be denied admittance at the discretion of the laboratory director.

BSL 2 labs must also provide the next level of barriers, i.e., specialty safety equipment and facilities. Preferably, this is a Class II biosafety cabinet or equivalent containment device for work with agents and an autoclave or other suitable method for decontamination within the lab. A readily available eyewash station is needed. Self-closing lockable doors and biohazard warning signs are also required at all access points.

Level 3

Yellow fever, St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus are examples of agents requiring biosafety level 3 practices and containment. Work with these agents is strictly controlled and must be registered with all appropriate government agencies. These are indigenous or exotic agents that may cause serious or lethal disease via aerosol transmission, i.e., simple inhalation of particles or droplets. The pathogenicity and communicability of these agents dictates the next level of protective procedures and barriers. Add to all the BSL 2 practices and equipment even more stringent access control and decontamination of all wastes, including lab clothing before laundering, within the lab facility. Baseline serum samples are collected from all lab and other at-risk personnel as appropriate.

More protective primary barriers are used in BSL 3 laboratories, including solid-front wraparound gowns, scrub suits or coveralls made of materials such as Tyvek® and respirators as necessary. Facility design should incorporate self-closing double-door access separated from general building corridors. The ventilation must provide ducted, directional airflow by drawing air into the lab from clean areas and with no recirculation.

(Video) BSL Biosafety Levels: Microbiology Lab

Level 4

Agents requiring BSL 4 facilities and practices are extremely dangerous and pose a high risk of life-threatening disease. Examples are the Ebola virus, the Lassa virus, and any agent with unknown risks of pathogenicity and transmission. These facilities provide the maximum protection and containment. To the BSL 3 practices, we add requirements for complete clothing change before entry, a shower on exit and decontamination of all materials prior to leaving the facility.

The BSL 4 laboratory should contain a Class III biological safety cabinet but may use a Class I or II BSC in combination with a positive-pressure, air-supplied full-body suit. Usually, BSL 4 laboratories are in separate buildings or a totally isolated zone with dedicated supply and exhaust ventilation. Exhaust streams are filtered through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, depending on the agents used.

We have touched on only the main issues and differences between BSL 1, 2, 3, and 4 laboratories. There are many other concerns and requirements addressed in the CDC manual, such as impervious, easy-to-clean surfaces; insect and rodent control; and total barrier sealing of all wall, floor, and ceiling penetrations. Our goal was to introduce you to the different levels of biological safety practices and facility design considerations. Hopefully, you now have the knowledge to decide whether you should open that door or not.

References:

  1. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th edition, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health, February 2007.https://www.cdc.gov/labs/BMBL.html
  2. Biennial Review of the Lists of Select Agents and Toxins, National Select Agent Registry, CDC. Atlanta, GA. 2010. http://www.selectagents.gov/
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Biological safety levels are ranked from one to four and are selected based on the agents or organisms on which the research or work is being conducted. Each level up builds on the previous level, adding constraints and barriers

","bodyStructuredData":"

Introductory microbiology laboratories are usually designated as which biosafety level (3)

Biological Agents, Work Practices, Safety Equipment, and Facility Design Specific to Each

A very specialized research laboratory that deals with infectious agents is the biosafety lab. Whether performing research or production activities, when working with infectious materials, organisms or perhaps even laboratory animals, the proper degree of protection is of utmost importance. Protection for laboratory personnel, the environment and the local community must be considered and ensured. The protections required by these types of activities are defined as biosafety levels. Biological safety levels are ranked from one to four and are selected based on the agents or organisms on which the research or work is being conducted. Each level up builds on the previous level, adding constraints and barriers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) are our main sources for biological safety information for infectious agents. The publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories is a principal reference and the resource for much of the information presented in this month’s column. As an introduction, we summarize what the different biosafety levels encompass in terms of the typical biological agents used, safe work practices, specialized safety equipment (primary barriers) and facility design (secondary barriers).

The four biosafety levels were developed to protect against a world of select agents. These agents include bacteria, fungi, parasites, prions, rickettsial agents and viruses, the latter being probably the largest and most important group. In many instances the work or research involves vertebrate animals, everything from mice to cattle. When vertebrates are involved, additional precautions and safety requirements are necessary. Using the most infectious agents also means extensive security measures are in place, not only because of their virulence but also because of their potential for use in bioterrorism.

Level 1

Biosafety level one, the lowest level, applies to work with agents that usually pose a minimal potential threat to laboratory workers and the environment and do not consistently cause disease in healthy adults. Research with these agents is generally performed on standard open laboratory benches without the use of special containment equipment. BSL 1 labs are not usually isolated from the general building. Training on the specific procedures is given to the lab personnel, who are supervised by a trained microbiologist or scientist.

Standard microbiology practices are usually enough to protect laboratory workers and other employees in the building. These include mechanical pipetting only (no mouth pipetting allowed), safe sharps handling, avoidance of splashes or aerosols, and decontamination of all work surfaces when work is complete, e.g., daily. Decontamination of spills is done immediately, and all potentially infectious materials are decontaminated prior to disposal, generally by autoclaving. Standard microbiological practices also require attention to personal hygiene, i.e., hand washing and a prohibition on eating, drinking or smoking in the lab. Normal laboratory personal protective equipment is generally worn, consisting of eye protection, gloves and a lab coat or gown. Biohazard signs are posted and access to the lab is limited whenever infectious agents are present.

Level 2

Biosafety level two would cover work with agents associated with human disease, in other words, pathogenic or infectious organisms posing a moderate hazard. Examples are the equine encephalitis viruses and HIV when performing routine diagnostic procedures or work with clinical specimens. Therefore, because of their potential to cause human disease, great care is used to prevent percutaneous injury (needlesticks, cuts and other breaches of the skin), ingestion and mucous membrane exposures in addition to the standard microbiological practices of BSL 1. Contaminated sharps are handled with extreme caution. Use of disposable syringe-needle units and appropriate puncture-resistant sharps containers is mandatory. Direct handling of broken glassware is prohibited, and decontamination of all sharps prior to disposal is standard practice. The laboratory’s written biosafety manual details any needed immunizations (e.g., hepatitis B vaccine or TB skin testing) and whether serum banking is required for at-risk lab personnel. Access to the lab is more controlled than for BSL 1 facilities. Immunocompromised, immunosuppressed, and other persons with increased risk for infection may be denied admittance at the discretion of the laboratory director.

BSL 2 labs must also provide the next level of barriers, i.e., specialty safety equipment and facilities. Preferably, this is a Class II biosafety cabinet or equivalent containment device for work with agents and an autoclave or other suitable method for decontamination within the lab. A readily available eyewash station is needed. Self-closing lockable doors and biohazard warning signs are also required at all access points.

Level 3

Yellow fever, St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus are examples of agents requiring biosafety level 3 practices and containment. Work with these agents is strictly controlled and must be registered with all appropriate government agencies. These are indigenous or exotic agents that may cause serious or lethal disease via aerosol transmission, i.e., simple inhalation of particles or droplets. The pathogenicity and communicability of these agents dictates the next level of protective procedures and barriers. Add to all the BSL 2 practices and equipment even more stringent access control and decontamination of all wastes, including lab clothing before laundering, within the lab facility. Baseline serum samples are collected from all lab and other at-risk personnel as appropriate.

More protective primary barriers are used in BSL 3 laboratories, including solid-front wraparound gowns, scrub suits or coveralls made of materials such as Tyvek® and respirators as necessary. Facility design should incorporate self-closing double-door access separated from general building corridors. The ventilation must provide ducted, directional airflow by drawing air into the lab from clean areas and with no recirculation.

(Video) What is a Biosafety Professional?

Level 4

Agents requiring BSL 4 facilities and practices are extremely dangerous and pose a high risk of life-threatening disease. Examples are the Ebola virus, the Lassa virus, and any agent with unknown risks of pathogenicity and transmission. These facilities provide the maximum protection and containment. To the BSL 3 practices, we add requirements for complete clothing change before entry, a shower on exit and decontamination of all materials prior to leaving the facility.

The BSL 4 laboratory should contain a Class III biological safety cabinet but may use a Class I or II BSC in combination with a positive-pressure, air-supplied full-body suit. Usually, BSL 4 laboratories are in separate buildings or a totally isolated zone with dedicated supply and exhaust ventilation. Exhaust streams are filtered through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, depending on the agents used.

We have touched on only the main issues and differences between BSL 1, 2, 3, and 4 laboratories. There are many other concerns and requirements addressed in the CDC manual, such as impervious, easy-to-clean surfaces; insect and rodent control; and total barrier sealing of all wall, floor, and ceiling penetrations. Our goal was to introduce you to the different levels of biological safety practices and facility design considerations. Hopefully, you now have the knowledge to decide whether you should open that door or not.

References:

  1. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th edition, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health, February 2007.https://www.cdc.gov/labs/BMBL.html
  2. Biennial Review of the Lists of Select Agents and Toxins, National Select Agent Registry, CDC. Atlanta, GA. 2010. http://www.selectagents.gov/
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","seoSummary":"Biological safety levels are ranked from one to four and are selected based on the agents or organisms on which the research or work is being conducted. Each level up builds on the previous level, adding constraints and barriers.","body":"

Introductory microbiology laboratories are usually designated as which biosafety level (4)

Biological Agents, Work Practices, Safety Equipment, and Facility Design Specific to Each

A very specialized research laboratory that deals with infectious agents is the biosafety lab. Whether performing research or production activities, when working with infectious materials, organisms or perhaps even laboratory animals, the proper degree of protection is of utmost importance. Protection for laboratory personnel, the environment and the local community must be considered and ensured. The protections required by these types of activities are defined as biosafety levels. Biological safety levels are ranked from one to four and are selected based on the agents or organisms on which the research or work is being conducted. Each level up builds on the previous level, adding constraints and barriers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) are our main sources for biological safety information for infectious agents. The publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories is a principal reference and the resource for much of the information presented in this month’s column. As an introduction, we summarize what the different biosafety levels encompass in terms of the typical biological agents used, safe work practices, specialized safety equipment (primary barriers) and facility design (secondary barriers).

The four biosafety levels were developed to protect against a world of select agents. These agents include bacteria, fungi, parasites, prions, rickettsial agents and viruses, the latter being probably the largest and most important group. In many instances the work or research involves vertebrate animals, everything from mice to cattle. When vertebrates are involved, additional precautions and safety requirements are necessary. Using the most infectious agents also means extensive security measures are in place, not only because of their virulence but also because of their potential for use in bioterrorism.

Level 1

Biosafety level one, the lowest level, applies to work with agents that usually pose a minimal potential threat to laboratory workers and the environment and do not consistently cause disease in healthy adults. Research with these agents is generally performed on standard open laboratory benches without the use of special containment equipment. BSL 1 labs are not usually isolated from the general building. Training on the specific procedures is given to the lab personnel, who are supervised by a trained microbiologist or scientist.

Standard microbiology practices are usually enough to protect laboratory workers and other employees in the building. These include mechanical pipetting only (no mouth pipetting allowed), safe sharps handling, avoidance of splashes or aerosols, and decontamination of all work surfaces when work is complete, e.g., daily. Decontamination of spills is done immediately, and all potentially infectious materials are decontaminated prior to disposal, generally by autoclaving. Standard microbiological practices also require attention to personal hygiene, i.e., hand washing and a prohibition on eating, drinking or smoking in the lab. Normal laboratory personal protective equipment is generally worn, consisting of eye protection, gloves and a lab coat or gown. Biohazard signs are posted and access to the lab is limited whenever infectious agents are present.

Level 2

Biosafety level two would cover work with agents associated with human disease, in other words, pathogenic or infectious organisms posing a moderate hazard. Examples are the equine encephalitis viruses and HIV when performing routine diagnostic procedures or work with clinical specimens. Therefore, because of their potential to cause human disease, great care is used to prevent percutaneous injury (needlesticks, cuts and other breaches of the skin), ingestion and mucous membrane exposures in addition to the standard microbiological practices of BSL 1. Contaminated sharps are handled with extreme caution. Use of disposable syringe-needle units and appropriate puncture-resistant sharps containers is mandatory. Direct handling of broken glassware is prohibited, and decontamination of all sharps prior to disposal is standard practice. The laboratory’s written biosafety manual details any needed immunizations (e.g., hepatitis B vaccine or TB skin testing) and whether serum banking is required for at-risk lab personnel. Access to the lab is more controlled than for BSL 1 facilities. Immunocompromised, immunosuppressed, and other persons with increased risk for infection may be denied admittance at the discretion of the laboratory director.

BSL 2 labs must also provide the next level of barriers, i.e., specialty safety equipment and facilities. Preferably, this is a Class II biosafety cabinet or equivalent containment device for work with agents and an autoclave or other suitable method for decontamination within the lab. A readily available eyewash station is needed. Self-closing lockable doors and biohazard warning signs are also required at all access points.

Level 3

Yellow fever, St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus are examples of agents requiring biosafety level 3 practices and containment. Work with these agents is strictly controlled and must be registered with all appropriate government agencies. These are indigenous or exotic agents that may cause serious or lethal disease via aerosol transmission, i.e., simple inhalation of particles or droplets. The pathogenicity and communicability of these agents dictates the next level of protective procedures and barriers. Add to all the BSL 2 practices and equipment even more stringent access control and decontamination of all wastes, including lab clothing before laundering, within the lab facility. Baseline serum samples are collected from all lab and other at-risk personnel as appropriate.

More protective primary barriers are used in BSL 3 laboratories, including solid-front wraparound gowns, scrub suits or coveralls made of materials such as Tyvek® and respirators as necessary. Facility design should incorporate self-closing double-door access separated from general building corridors. The ventilation must provide ducted, directional airflow by drawing air into the lab from clean areas and with no recirculation.

(Video) biosafety levels 1 2 3 4 | laboratory safety levels.

Level 4

Agents requiring BSL 4 facilities and practices are extremely dangerous and pose a high risk of life-threatening disease. Examples are the Ebola virus, the Lassa virus, and any agent with unknown risks of pathogenicity and transmission. These facilities provide the maximum protection and containment. To the BSL 3 practices, we add requirements for complete clothing change before entry, a shower on exit and decontamination of all materials prior to leaving the facility.

The BSL 4 laboratory should contain a Class III biological safety cabinet but may use a Class I or II BSC in combination with a positive-pressure, air-supplied full-body suit. Usually, BSL 4 laboratories are in separate buildings or a totally isolated zone with dedicated supply and exhaust ventilation. Exhaust streams are filtered through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, depending on the agents used.

We have touched on only the main issues and differences between BSL 1, 2, 3, and 4 laboratories. There are many other concerns and requirements addressed in the CDC manual, such as impervious, easy-to-clean surfaces; insect and rodent control; and total barrier sealing of all wall, floor, and ceiling penetrations. Our goal was to introduce you to the different levels of biological safety practices and facility design considerations. Hopefully, you now have the knowledge to decide whether you should open that door or not.

References:

  1. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th edition, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health, February 2007.https://www.cdc.gov/labs/BMBL.html
  2. Biennial Review of the Lists of Select Agents and Toxins, National Select Agent Registry, CDC. Atlanta, GA. 2010. http://www.selectagents.gov/
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Introductory microbiology laboratories are usually designated as which biosafety level (5)

Biological Agents, Work Practices, Safety Equipment, and Facility Design Specific to Each

A very specialized research laboratory that deals with infectious agents is the biosafety lab. Whether performing research or production activities, when working with infectious materials, organisms or perhaps even laboratory animals, the proper degree of protection is of utmost importance. Protection for laboratory personnel, the environment and the local community must be considered and ensured. The protections required by these types of activities are defined as biosafety levels. Biological safety levels are ranked from one to four and are selected based on the agents or organisms on which the research or work is being conducted. Each level up builds on the previous level, adding constraints and barriers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) are our main sources for biological safety information for infectious agents. The publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories is a principal reference and the resource for much of the information presented in this month’s column. As an introduction, we summarize what the different biosafety levels encompass in terms of the typical biological agents used, safe work practices, specialized safety equipment (primary barriers) and facility design (secondary barriers).

The four biosafety levels were developed to protect against a world of select agents. These agents include bacteria, fungi, parasites, prions, rickettsial agents and viruses, the latter being probably the largest and most important group. In many instances the work or research involves vertebrate animals, everything from mice to cattle. When vertebrates are involved, additional precautions and safety requirements are necessary. Using the most infectious agents also means extensive security measures are in place, not only because of their virulence but also because of their potential for use in bioterrorism.

Level 1

Biosafety level one, the lowest level, applies to work with agents that usually pose a minimal potential threat to laboratory workers and the environment and do not consistently cause disease in healthy adults. Research with these agents is generally performed on standard open laboratory benches without the use of special containment equipment. BSL 1 labs are not usually isolated from the general building. Training on the specific procedures is given to the lab personnel, who are supervised by a trained microbiologist or scientist.

Standard microbiology practices are usually enough to protect laboratory workers and other employees in the building. These include mechanical pipetting only (no mouth pipetting allowed), safe sharps handling, avoidance of splashes or aerosols, and decontamination of all work surfaces when work is complete, e.g., daily. Decontamination of spills is done immediately, and all potentially infectious materials are decontaminated prior to disposal, generally by autoclaving. Standard microbiological practices also require attention to personal hygiene, i.e., hand washing and a prohibition on eating, drinking or smoking in the lab. Normal laboratory personal protective equipment is generally worn, consisting of eye protection, gloves and a lab coat or gown. Biohazard signs are posted and access to the lab is limited whenever infectious agents are present.

Level 2

Biosafety level two would cover work with agents associated with human disease, in other words, pathogenic or infectious organisms posing a moderate hazard. Examples are the equine encephalitis viruses and HIV when performing routine diagnostic procedures or work with clinical specimens. Therefore, because of their potential to cause human disease, great care is used to prevent percutaneous injury (needlesticks, cuts and other breaches of the skin), ingestion and mucous membrane exposures in addition to the standard microbiological practices of BSL 1. Contaminated sharps are handled with extreme caution. Use of disposable syringe-needle units and appropriate puncture-resistant sharps containers is mandatory. Direct handling of broken glassware is prohibited, and decontamination of all sharps prior to disposal is standard practice. The laboratory’s written biosafety manual details any needed immunizations (e.g., hepatitis B vaccine or TB skin testing) and whether serum banking is required for at-risk lab personnel. Access to the lab is more controlled than for BSL 1 facilities. Immunocompromised, immunosuppressed, and other persons with increased risk for infection may be denied admittance at the discretion of the laboratory director.

BSL 2 labs must also provide the next level of barriers, i.e., specialty safety equipment and facilities. Preferably, this is a Class II biosafety cabinet or equivalent containment device for work with agents and an autoclave or other suitable method for decontamination within the lab. A readily available eyewash station is needed. Self-closing lockable doors and biohazard warning signs are also required at all access points.

Level 3

Yellow fever, St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus are examples of agents requiring biosafety level 3 practices and containment. Work with these agents is strictly controlled and must be registered with all appropriate government agencies. These are indigenous or exotic agents that may cause serious or lethal disease via aerosol transmission, i.e., simple inhalation of particles or droplets. The pathogenicity and communicability of these agents dictates the next level of protective procedures and barriers. Add to all the BSL 2 practices and equipment even more stringent access control and decontamination of all wastes, including lab clothing before laundering, within the lab facility. Baseline serum samples are collected from all lab and other at-risk personnel as appropriate.

More protective primary barriers are used in BSL 3 laboratories, including solid-front wraparound gowns, scrub suits or coveralls made of materials such as Tyvek® and respirators as necessary. Facility design should incorporate self-closing double-door access separated from general building corridors. The ventilation must provide ducted, directional airflow by drawing air into the lab from clean areas and with no recirculation.

(Video) Biosafety Levels | MIT 20.020 Introduction to Biological Engineering Design, Spring 2009

Level 4

Agents requiring BSL 4 facilities and practices are extremely dangerous and pose a high risk of life-threatening disease. Examples are the Ebola virus, the Lassa virus, and any agent with unknown risks of pathogenicity and transmission. These facilities provide the maximum protection and containment. To the BSL 3 practices, we add requirements for complete clothing change before entry, a shower on exit and decontamination of all materials prior to leaving the facility.

The BSL 4 laboratory should contain a Class III biological safety cabinet but may use a Class I or II BSC in combination with a positive-pressure, air-supplied full-body suit. Usually, BSL 4 laboratories are in separate buildings or a totally isolated zone with dedicated supply and exhaust ventilation. Exhaust streams are filtered through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, depending on the agents used.

We have touched on only the main issues and differences between BSL 1, 2, 3, and 4 laboratories. There are many other concerns and requirements addressed in the CDC manual, such as impervious, easy-to-clean surfaces; insect and rodent control; and total barrier sealing of all wall, floor, and ceiling penetrations. Our goal was to introduce you to the different levels of biological safety practices and facility design considerations. Hopefully, you now have the knowledge to decide whether you should open that door or not.

References:

  1. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th edition, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health, February 2007.https://www.cdc.gov/labs/BMBL.html
  2. Biennial Review of the Lists of Select Agents and Toxins, National Select Agent Registry, CDC. Atlanta, GA. 2010. http://www.selectagents.gov/
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FAQs

What is the biosafety level of microbiology laboratory? ›

Biosafety Levels

BSL-1 labs are used to study infectious agents or toxins not known to consistently cause disease in healthy adults. They follow basic safety procedures, called Standard Microbiological Practices and require no special equipment or design features.

What is a biosafety level 2 laboratory? ›

BSL–2. This biosafety level covers laboratories that work with agents associated with human diseases (i.e. pathogenic or infections organisms) that pose a moderate health hazard.

What is a biosafety level 3 laboratory? ›

Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3)​

BSL-3 laboratories are used to study infectious agents or toxins that may be transmitted through the air and cause potentially lethal infections. Researchers perform all experiments in a biosafety cabinet. BSL-3 laboratories are designed to be easily decontaminated.

What is a biosafety level 1 organism? ›

BSL-1. If you work in a lab that is designated a BSL-1, the microbes there are not known to consistently cause disease in healthy adults and present minimal potential hazard to laboratorians and the environment. An example of a microbe that is typically worked with at a BSL-1 is a nonpathogenic strain of E. coli.

What biosafety level do most introductory microbiology students work with? ›

What biosafety levels do most introductory microbiology students work with? Most introductory students work with BSL-1.

What are BSL-4 organisms? ›

Biohazard Level 4 usually includes dangerous viruses like Ebola, Marburg virus, Lassa fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and many other hemorrhagic viruses found in the tropics.

Where are BSL-4 labs located? ›

There are currently only four operational BSL-4 laboratory suites in the United States: at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta; at the United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick in Frederick, Maryland; at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research ...

What are BSL 3 organisms list? ›

NIAID BSL-3 Priority Pathogens
  • Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) ...
  • Brucella (Brucella abortus) ...
  • Burkholderia. ...
  • Botulism (Clostridium botulinum) ...
  • Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) ...
  • Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) ...
  • Plague (Yersinia pestis) ...
  • Q FEVER (Coxiella burnetii)

What are BSL 2 materials? ›

Biosafety level 2 (BSL-2)

The biological material used in a BSL-2 laboratory consists of bacteria, viruses, and organisms associated with human diseases. The potential pathogenic or infectious organisms subject to BSL-2 standards pose a moderate hazard to healthy adult humans.

What are the essential requirements of BSL 3? ›

  • Prerequisites for the construction of BSL-3/ Assessment of proposed facility.
  • Establishment of basic objectives. Predesign.
  • Design. Construction.
  • Commissioning. Validation.
  • Operation and. maintenance.

What diseases are studied in a BSL-4 lab? ›

Biosafety level 4 laboratories are used for diagnostic work and research on easily transmitted pathogens which can cause fatal disease. These include a number of viruses known to cause viral hemorrhagic fever such as Marburg virus, Ebola virus, Lassa virus, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

How many biosafety levels are there? ›

There are four biosafety levels (BSLs) that define proper laboratory techniques, safety equipment, and design, depending on the types of agents being studied: BSL-1 labs are used to study agents not known to consistently cause disease in healthy adults.

What is a level 4 agent? ›

Level 4. Agents requiring BSL 4 facilities and practices are extremely dangerous and pose a high risk of life-threatening disease. Examples are the Ebola virus, the Lassa virus, and any agent with unknown risks of pathogenicity and transmission. These facilities provide the maximum protection and containment.

Which biosafety level is appropriate for research with microbes? ›

BSL-2 is appropriate for research with microbes or infectious agents that pose moderate risk to laboratory workers and the community, and are typically indigenous.

What is contaminant level1? ›

Containment level 1 (CL 1) is used for work with low risk biological agents and hazards, genetically modified organisms, animals and plants.

How many biosafety levels are there for selected infectious agents quizlet? ›

there are four biosafety levels. Each level has specific controls for containment of microbes and biological agents. The primary risks that determine levels of containment are infectivity, the severity of disease, transmissibility, and the nature of the work conducted.

Which biosafety level BSL is appropriate for handling organisms that present a moderate risk of infection? ›

Which level of biosafety (BSL) is appropriate for handling organisms that present a moderate risk of infection? BSL-2 labs feature open bench tops, lab coats, gloves, and appropriate eyewear for use in working with microbes that are moderately pathogenic.

Which of the following represent important safety procedures for microbiology students select all that apply quizlet? ›

Which of the following represent important safety procedures for microbiology students? Always wear open-toed shoes so organisms do not become trapped in shoes. , Wash your hands before and after laboratory procedures. and Disinfect your lab bench at the beginning and end of the lab period.

What is a risk group 2 organism? ›

WHO Risk Group 2 (moderate individual risk, low community risk) - A pathogen that can cause human or animal disease but is unlikely to be a serious hazard to laboratory workers, the community, livestock or the environment.

Which BSL requires the use of a supply line respirator? ›

The OSHA General Duty Clause (Section 5A1) can be applied to biohazards in the research laboratory. This BSL requires the use of a supply line respirator or all work within a sealed totally enclosed glove box.

How many containment level 4 biosafety facilities are there in Canada? ›

These labs are called Containment Level 4 labs (CL4). Canada's only CL4 labs are found in Winnipeg, Manitoba, at the Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH).

Is the biosafety level always the same as the risk group number? ›

Risk group and biosafety level are often the same (i.e. risk group 1 organisms are handled at biosafety level 1), but not always. The risk group classification is only one factor to consider when determining the biosafety level for a particular agent.

How many bio labs exist in the world? ›

Of the 182 signatories to the convention, the US is the only one that pulled out of negotiations for such a mechanism in 2001. It is clear that by doing so the US wants to protect the secrets of its 336 biological labs worldwide.

What are 3 types of pathogens? ›

Pathogenic organisms are of five main types: viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and worms.

What is the difference between biosafety level 2 and 3? ›

This is provided to demonstrate that BSL-2 is largely achieved through sound lab safety practices and BSL-3 is achieved through the addition of facility features and equipment designed for containment of aerosols to a foundation of sound lab safety practices.

What is the required PPE for a BSL-2 microbiology lab? ›

Standard BSL-2 PPE consists of a dedicated lab coat, gloves, and eye protection. Other PPE may be required (see EH&S PPE Assessment Guide). Do not wear PPE in public areas.

What biosafety cabinet can be installed in a BSL-2 laboratory? ›

For Biosafety Level 2 applications involving toxic chemicals or radionuclides, a Class II- B type cabinet must be installed. Class II-B cabinets do not allow in-room venting of exhaust air and are thus appropriate for such uses.

What are the biosafety guidelines followed in India? ›

What is biosafety guidelines? Regulating rDNA research with organisms that have least or no adverse effect. In India, DBT has proposed “The recombinant DNA safety guidelines” in 1983 and amended in 1990. These guidelines deals with a set of rules for production, use, import, export and storage of hazardous organisms.

What biosafety level is designated for organisms that don't usually cause disease in humans? ›

Biosafety level -1 (BSL-1) is recommended for organisms, which do not cause any diseases to humans. It is used for agents, which pose minimal threat to the laboratory workers, public health and environment.

How many Level 4 laboratories are there in the world? ›

There are 59 biosafety level 4 labs (BSL-4) in the world, but only a few scored high on safety.

What are standard microbiological practices? ›

Standard microbiological practices (SMPs) are generally defined as the basic “hygiene” practices that apply to all labs that manipulate microorganisms or any biological materials that contain microorganisms.

Where is biosafety laboratory in India? ›

There are only two such laboratories in India, the National Institute of Virology, Pune, which is a dedicated facility for the study of human pathogens, and the High Security Animal Disease Laboratory, Bhopal, a dedicated facility that studies animal pathogens.

What biosafety level is cell culture? ›

Chapter 9: Human Tissue and Cell Culture

All unfixed human tissue and cells are to be assumed to be infectious (the concept of “Universal Precautions”) and must be handled using Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) practices and procedures.

What are types of laboratory? ›

Laboratory Types
  • Analytical and Quality Laboratories. ...
  • Biosafety Laboratories. ...
  • Cleanrooms. ...
  • Clinical and Medical Laboratories. ...
  • Incubator Laboratories. ...
  • Production Laboratories. ...
  • Research & Development (R&D) Laboratories.

What are the main biosafety practices in a laboratory? ›

Hand washing after handling biologicals and potentially hazardous materials, after taking off gloves and before leaving the lab. Avoiding hand-to-face (or mouth) contact. No eating, drinking, smoking, or applying cosmetics in the lab. Disinfecting work surfaces daily and decontaminating after spills.

Which biosafety level is appropriate for research with microbes? ›

BSL-2 is appropriate for research with microbes or infectious agents that pose moderate risk to laboratory workers and the community, and are typically indigenous.

What is a level 4 agent? ›

Level 4. Agents requiring BSL 4 facilities and practices are extremely dangerous and pose a high risk of life-threatening disease. Examples are the Ebola virus, the Lassa virus, and any agent with unknown risks of pathogenicity and transmission. These facilities provide the maximum protection and containment.

What are BSL 3 organisms list? ›

NIAID BSL-3 Priority Pathogens
  • Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) ...
  • Brucella (Brucella abortus) ...
  • Burkholderia. ...
  • Botulism (Clostridium botulinum) ...
  • Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) ...
  • Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) ...
  • Plague (Yersinia pestis) ...
  • Q FEVER (Coxiella burnetii)

How many biosafety levels are there? ›

There are four biosafety levels (BSLs) that define proper laboratory techniques, safety equipment, and design, depending on the types of agents being studied: BSL-1 labs are used to study agents not known to consistently cause disease in healthy adults.

How many BSL-4 labs are there? ›

There are currently only four operational BSL-4 laboratory suites in the United States: at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta; at the United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick in Frederick, Maryland; at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research ...

What is contaminant level1? ›

Containment level 1 (CL 1) is used for work with low risk biological agents and hazards, genetically modified organisms, animals and plants.

Which among the biosafety level risk group is strictly prohibited from conducting or experimenting? ›

BSL-4 risk group contains biological agents that usually produce very serious disease (human, animal or plant) that is often untreatable. Projects in the BSL-4 group are prohibited.

What are the essential requirements of BSL 3? ›

  • Prerequisites for the construction of BSL-3/ Assessment of proposed facility.
  • Establishment of basic objectives. Predesign.
  • Design. Construction.
  • Commissioning. Validation.
  • Operation and. maintenance.

What are risk Group 4 agents? ›

Risk Group 4 (RG4) - Agents that are likely to cause serious or lethal human disease for which preventive or therapeutic interventions are not usually available. These agents represent a high risk to the individual and a high risk to the community.

What is Level 4 hot zone? ›

The Biosafety Level 4 rooms contain BL-4 agents, also known as hot agents. A BL-4 hot agent is a lethal virus for which, in most cases, there is no vaccine and no cure. It is in the nature of hot agents to travel through the air: they can become airborne.

What is an example of a biosafety level 2 agent? ›

The agents require Biosafety Level 2 containment. Examples of BSL-2 organisms are: Mycobacterium, Streptococcus pneumonia, Salmonella choleraesuis.

Which biosafety level BSL is appropriate for handling organisms that present a moderate risk of infection? ›

Which level of biosafety (BSL) is appropriate for handling organisms that present a moderate risk of infection? BSL-2 labs feature open bench tops, lab coats, gloves, and appropriate eyewear for use in working with microbes that are moderately pathogenic.

Which BSL requires the use of a supply line respirator? ›

The OSHA General Duty Clause (Section 5A1) can be applied to biohazards in the research laboratory. This BSL requires the use of a supply line respirator or all work within a sealed totally enclosed glove box.

What biosafety level is cell culture? ›

Chapter 9: Human Tissue and Cell Culture

All unfixed human tissue and cells are to be assumed to be infectious (the concept of “Universal Precautions”) and must be handled using Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) practices and procedures.

What are types of laboratory? ›

Laboratory Types
  • Analytical and Quality Laboratories. ...
  • Biosafety Laboratories. ...
  • Cleanrooms. ...
  • Clinical and Medical Laboratories. ...
  • Incubator Laboratories. ...
  • Production Laboratories. ...
  • Research & Development (R&D) Laboratories.

What are the main biosafety practices in a laboratory? ›

Hand washing after handling biologicals and potentially hazardous materials, after taking off gloves and before leaving the lab. Avoiding hand-to-face (or mouth) contact. No eating, drinking, smoking, or applying cosmetics in the lab. Disinfecting work surfaces daily and decontaminating after spills.

Videos

1. What are the four Biosafety Levels (BSL)?
(All Things Microbes)
2. Biosafety and microbiology training - on novel and dangerous pathogens
(UK Health Security Agency)
3. Biosafety Basics Quip Laboratories
(Quip Labs)
4. Biological safety
(LabsforLifeProject)
5. Biosafety and Biosecurity
(The Medtech Lounge by Ms. Noee)
6. Introduction to Biosafety
(BIStrainer)

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